Hund’s Rules


Hund's Rules

1. The term with maximum multiplicity (highest total spin) lies lowest in energy.

2. For a given multiplicity, the term with the largest value of L lies lowest in energy.

3. If a subshell is less than half-filled, the one with lowest $J$ is the ground state. If the subshell is more than half-filled, the one with the highest $J$ is the ground state.


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